Figure 9: Elements of the RULER model. In A, an impulse from a specific thalamic nucleus (Sp Thal) is transferred by a spiny stellate cell (Ssc) to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layers II, III and V, evoking EPSPs in the superficial cells (top). In B, a basket cell (Bsk) is activated by a recurrent impulse in one of the layer V cells, causing widespread IPSP in this and other deep pyramids (top). At the conclusion of the IPSP (C) there is rebound excitations in all the deep pyramids within the local region of cortex. The axon collaterals (Ax) bring the superficial cells to the firing level, depending on the amount of residual EPSP retained in the dendritic tree.
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